This is the third part of this book, 1750-1800, continued from here, the first part, 1700-1750. The second and forth parts are about women's clothes.
||The Eighteenth Century Garb Homepage:|
|Handbook of English Costume in the Eighteenth Cetury|
by Willett & Phillis Cunnington
The main features continued to the end of the century.
The side seams of the coat were increasingly curved back, bringing the hip buttons closer together and thus narrowing the back.
Concurrently the front skirts were cut back exposing the front of the breeches, and causing the disappearance, in the 176o's, of the flared skirts which, in the go's, were reduced to squared coat- tails behind. Buckram and sti&ning of the skirts were being discarded in the 6o's and, from 1780 On, padding was introduced in the upper forepart, over the chest. Suits made of rich materials frequently had two pairs of breeches.
'Flowered silk suite, 2 pairs of breeches. Sfiver tissue suite, 2 pairs of breeches.' 1762. The Houblon Family.
Close fitting but showing little signs of waist or flared skirt after 1760's. The skirts ended above the knees.
Side vents with tlitee pleats and covered hip buttons.
One or two matching buttons down the side pleats and half concealed by them, were common. The side pleats were usually caught together at these button-attachments, when present.
(i) with side folds (until c. i,77s).
The vent was often trimmed on each side with a ladder of sham button-holes (very common from 1760).
(2) Plain (1770's and so's, but not common).
(3) With a short overlap (1 775 on; rare earlier). 'What is called - ek over.' 1796. Taylor's Cottivlete Guide. .a The Neck
(i) No collar until 176s; with older men sometimes not until C. 1780.
(2) Standing collar from c. 1765.
This collar might encircle the neck completely or have a small step under the chin. The standing collar was about one inch deep in the 1760's, increasing to ii inch by the So's and sometimes deeper in the go's. 'The coat widi a high stand-up collar, single-breasted and narrow backed; z buttons at the sleeves and 4 at the pockets.' 1786. Ipsivich journal, Aug. 12,'Fasliioiis for the Gendemen, Common Dress.' 'A coat with a collar up to your ears.' 1787. London Chronicle, 'Watering Place Fashions'. Front line andfastetlifigs The curve away from the raid-Iffic from the waist down was marked from the 1770's. '. . . Look as if the taylor cribb'd the cloth.' 1773. Gentleman's Magazine, Aug. Very little front skirts remained in the 1790's. Coats were rarely buttoned except at the waist, and frequently left entirely open. Arrangement ofbuttotis and button-holes (i) From neck to hem (now unusual and rare after 176o). (2) From neck to waist. (3) Military style ofcoats with long narrow rovers from neck to near waist level and buttoned back into place, were occa- sionally adopted by civilians. _ _
59. Coat with round cuff. Waistcoat with buttons to the Lien (uncommon at this date). Sobtaire at the neck; bag-wig '@ la pigeoii'. (1767.)
60. Coat with buttoned-back revers and cuffi 'I la mariiii@re', as worn by the Services but oftell adopted by the fop. (1764.) Buttons During the second half of the century buttons were mostly flat and not domed; of medium size until about 1775 and then sometimes larger. The huge buttons Of 1775-88 wore generally reserved for frocks and undress. Types of Buttons: Some had distinctive names; Basket buttons were covered with an interlacing pattern like darning or a metal invitation of it. Death's Head and Snail buttons (see Section 1). Knopped buttons. Covered buttons (i.e. covered with the coat material; these, though illegal, continued in use). Buttons covered with silk twist, wire twist, gold or silver twist, or horsehair. Buttons of moulded horn or covered with mohair were used though un- fas6onable. For full dress: 'the buttons are enamelled ... and set with white stones.' 1786. Ipswich journal. Also set with Bristol stone, French paste and even diamonds. (For metal buttons see under the Frock.) Button-holes These were often very long and open only enough to admit the button, the rest being sewn up. Sham button-holes except at neck and waist were common. Where all were sham, or where the coat border was embroidered, a few hooks and eyes at the waist and sometimes higher, gave an edge to edge closure, instead of buttoning. Sham button-holes to match were sometimes placed on the opposite side as a form of decoration. Button-holes were often made to slope upwards from the front border, from the 1770's, mainly due to the sloping off of the fronts. Decorative button-holes might be bewii with coloured silk or gold or silver thread, or embroidered round. %A cloth suit, gold button and hole.' 1769.Ordered from London by Governor Hutchinson of Boston.
Less elegant material was .a dingy brown coat with vellum button-holes.' 1779. Mrs. COwlOY, Who's the Dupe? A button and loop on the left shoulder to secure the ribbon of some order, indicated a full-dress suit. Pockets One on each side, placedjust below waist level. Pocket flaps became shallower, reaching from near the thigh buttons to the front border behind the embroidery line. 5c21oped borders continued and trimming with sham vertical button-holes on the flap, with corresponding buttons on the coat just below. These.were occasionally omitted from plain suits or mouming. 'Black cloth without buttons on sleeves and pockets.' 1760. Court Mourning. Gentleman's and Lottdon Magazine. Sham pockets, with flaps only, were very occasionally made from the 1780's, and from that date pocket holes were generally welted. Vertical slit pockets without flaps, just in front of the side vents were sometimes worn by hairdressers, valets, etc. from the 1770's. Sleeves These were fairly close-fitting,. re-aching to near the wrist with the shirt sleeve and ruffle emerging. A slight gathering at the shoulder seam began to appear in the 1790's, anticipating the marked 'kick-up' of the early i Soo's.
Cuffs were universally worn, the slit sleeve beingr reserved for frocks. Ty,pes of Cuffs (a) Round cuffi (i.e. closed all round).
(i) wide and winged (i.e. fflling away from the sleeve on tile outer side@ 1750's.
(2) deep and close, 1760's.
(3) small and close. 1770's on. These were the fashionable tendencies but there was much overlapping. Sham cuffi indicated by a line of stitching were sometimes worn in the i 79o's.
(b) The cuff 1 la marini'ere. From 1750 on. This was a small round cuff fairly close fitting, crossed in front by a vertical flap slightly scalloped and edged with three or four buttons matching those on the coat; the lower buttons could be undone. 'A violet cloth coat lined with scarlet silk trimmed before and at the hands 1 la rnarini@re, with plain steel buttons.' 1788. 1Pswich journal, 'Autumn Fashions'. (c) The open cuff, this was wide, failing away from the sleeve on the outer side. Old-fasffioned after 176o.
With its turned-down collar continued to the end of the century to be worn as undress, for comfort and sport; but from the 1770's, and far more so from the 1780's, it was worn on all occasions except at Court, wherehowever the French frock was admitted. 'What is generally called a French Frock is the Court dress.' 1777. Gentleman's and London Magazine. When replacing the coat it was frequently called a frock-coat and as such was cut to a good fit, becoming a more stylish gar- ment than the sporting frock. 'Grey frocks ... second Court mouming.' 1752. Salisburyjournal. . the moment the Drawing Room was over the King used to strip into his Frock, whereas this evening he appear'd full dress'd.' 1772. Diaries ofthefirst Duchess ofnorthumberland. A gentleman writing from Paris. 'I was so damned uneasy in a full-dressed coat with hellish long skirts ... 1 frequently sighed for my little loose frock which 1 look upon as an emblem of our happy constitution; for it lays a man under no uneasy restraint but leaves it in his power to do as he pleases.' 1752. Arthur Murphy, Gray's InnjournaL
The wife in open robe with buttoned false front to the bodice; unced sleeves and treble laced ruffles. Long transparent apron; small ? with lappets tied loosely in front. (h) Husband in coat with close eves, sman round cuffs, short waistcoat. (c. 1775.)
Another gentleman in Paris in i 782: .though he occasionally gave in to the Parisian modes with regard to dress, he in turn gave the ton for English frocks.' i782. Town and Country Migazine. We find Ranelaghfrock--coats advertised in 178 7. The World. The English Frock was always plain; it might he trimmed with loops or braid but was never embroidered. The French Frock for full dress was 'fiffi trimmed' and 'the cuff is small and close, with three buttons on the upper side.' 1777. Gentleman's and London Magazine, Feb. 'Making and trimming a scarlet french frock ... with gold em- broidered button-holes.' i 76s. E.P,.0. DID By. A 23. The frock length tended to be shorter tlm the coat especially for sport and riding when the skirts were sometimes caught back on each side, thus widening the back vent and eliminating the side vents. Be hisfrock quite a' la mode, Short lest his steps it incommode. 175 5. London Magazine, 'The Beau'. The Neck always had a tumed-down collar, known as a 9 cape', fiffing round the neck when buttoned; it was sometimes faced with a different material and colour from the frock itsel£ Variations (i) Flat or rolled collar, from 176o's on; tending to narrow in the 70's and wider from 1780.
(2) Sometimes cut to fall away from t'ne rnid-neck6e in two short squared flaps (1 75 5-70) (see Plate 86b).
(3) Rising behind and the turnover dipping to a slight Point (I 770's on; very common in the 1780'S).
(4) For dressy occasions the collar rose high, becoming a stand-fall type from 1785, and often slightly cut back in Sont. Both features became progressively more marked to the end of the century. 'Egad! ... the shfiess of my cape gave me a sense of the pdlory.' 1786. General Burgoyne, The Heiress.
(5) Piding frocks with several collars were unusual but sometimes worn by sporting young men. 'His great ambition was to he deemed a jemmy fellow; for which purpose he appeared always in the morning in a Newmarket frock, decorated with a great number of green, red, or blue capes.' 1751. Francis Coventry, Pompey the Little. Front line and Fastenings The curve away from the niid-bne, with the narrowing of the back and skirts, which towards the z79o's were becoming mere coat-tails, followed the fashions described for the coat. Buttons, though sometimes reaching well below waist level. were never carried down to the hem. Styles Single-breasted, usual until c. 1780. Seldom with lapels. Double-breasted, with lapels, usual after 1780. A few double-breasted frocks with lapels occurred from i765 but these were chiefly worn by the unfashionable or for riding. L,qpels In the 8o's were small or wide and angular, sometimes with button-holes stepped to a flat--or for dress, a high-stand-fau collar. The top button was often placed in the gap between lapel and collar. Buttons down the front were fairly close together, the overlap being narrow. In the go's lapels were wide, often rounded; after 1796 with wide gap between lapel and roll or stand-fall collar. Buttons down the front were fairly wide apart, the overlap being broad. Buttons Followed the pattern of the coat but, with the exception of the French frock, were frequently of metal, especially from the 1770's. These from 1775 to 1790 were generally very large, the maximum being in 1777. 'Neither the enormous large buttons to the coats nor the prepos- terous buckles ... are adopted in full dress; they are only the reigning mode in undress.' 1777. Gentleman's and London Magazine, Feb. 197
(a) Double-breasted shooting frock. (1748.) (b) Frock with marini@re'. (1766.) (c) Plain frock. (c. 1770.)
rocks (a) 1742. (h) C. 176o. (d) 1774. (c), (f), (g) Typical frocks, Waistcoats aiid oval kiiecbucklcs. (1 78o's.)
'Buttons ... quite in ton, large to excess.' 1777. Diary of Mrs. Phili,p Lybbe Powis. Meul Buttons: Plated (French plate, or from 1750 Sheffield plate). 'To a frock cloth coat and waistcoat with french plate buttons, lined COmPlete £188.8.131.524. Manchester records. 'To new plated buttons with shanks, to a full suit i219.' Manchester records. Gilt; gold; silver; pinchbeck (from I 760). Steel; mother-of-pearl (from 1770). Metal buttons might be plain or worked. 'The rough country squire ... even the buttons of his clothes are impressed with the figures of dogs, foxes, stags and horses.' 1755. The Gottnoisseur,july. 'Mother-of-pearl buttons are likely to take the lead in the fashionable world; those Of steel soon rust.' 1794. The Times. But steel buttons were the leading fashion of the day.' 1797. 1PstvichjOurtzal, Jan. Enamelled buttons, some with hunting devices, were fashion- able from 1770. Button-holes were not embroidered except occasionally with the frock-coat style. Closure with buttons and loops, the buttons being olive- shaped, was unusual but occurred, mainly in the 1770's. Silver, silk, or pearl 'olives' were used, being long oval buttons made for loop fastening. Pockets Corresponded to those of the coat but from the 1780's the flaps were usually plain and devoid of slum button-holes with buttons below. Inside pockets, in the lining, with no (outside) flap pockets, began as a fashion in 1777. 'Some ]3ucks and Macaronis have an undress . . . the frock very long
(a) Frock with flat decorative buttons, slit sleeves, short @ Shoes with low tongues and square buckles of medium sizt (b) Frock with high stand-fall collar; small round cuffs; double square-cut short waistcoat; low shoes with large rectangular 'Bicorne' hat with large cockade. (1788.)
Caricatures of Macaronis. (a) Frock with buttons 'large to excess'. Macaroni hat; Artois shoe buckles. (1777.) (b) Short frock, square-cut waistcoat, macaroni' cravat, tight breeches; shoes with rosettes. Egg- shaped toup@e, large side 'buckles' and catogan queue. Sniafl Macaroni hat. Two watches with seals dangling from fob ribbons. (1 770.)
and plain, having no appearance of pockets on the outside, they being placed in the lining.' 1777. Gentleman's and London Magazine, Oct. Fashions. 'The mode at present is to have the pockets made within side. As this is the newest Parisian fashion it seems to infer the necessity of guarding against pick-pockets.' 1777. Gentleman's Magazine, Aug. Some frocks had both inside and outside pockets from this date. Sleeves Were moderately loose until I 770. They then became close- fitting to the wrist. Cuffs: (see Plate i i) (i) Round cuffi, moderately broad and deep, in the 1750's. Generally narrow and deep in the 176o's; subsequently be- coming close fitting. Usually three buttons along the upper border, or sometimes vertically placed (uncommon). (2) Cuffs'alamarini'erewereveryconimon. (3) A short vertical slit at the wrist, buttoned with or without a vertical flap; usually left fully or partly open. Tffis was the most usual style from 1780 on.
Caricatures of Fops of the 1790's. (a) Long frock, buckled breeches and slippers., skirted waistcoat without pocket-flaps. Large 'bicorne' hat with button and loop., catogan queue. Slender cane 'the size of a wax candle'. (1790.) (b) Short frock, now called a 'frock-coat' when the collar is very high. Short horizontally-striped waistcoat and stockings; long breeches tied with ribbon rosettes. Note fob ribbons, club wig, and quizzing glass. (1 790.)
The waistcoat comprised a pair of foreparts or fore-bodies, forming the part exposed to view; the back, and the lining. Sleeves were now unfashionable (see 'Sleeves'). The forepart skirts were cut back overlapping the side vents; as the skirts became shorter the angle of overlap became more acute. In the 1780's, when side vents were negligible, and the front skirts mere flaps, the acute-angled cut was still maintained, and only discarded with square-cut waistcoats. 'The waistcoat worn a few years ago would now inake two; the length is now so shallow.' 1777. Getitlegiia@i's and London Magazine. Slyies
(i) Single-breasted, worn throughout the period.
(2) Double-breasted. Pare in the 1750's, unusual in the 6o's and 70's, ver-Y common in the So's, usual in the go's
(i) Single-breasted Waistcoats Front line and fastenings: (17So's and 6o's.) A curve away from mid-line below the waist, increasing in the 6o's. Buttons from neck to point of divergence, though occasionally continued to hem. Frequently closed at the waist only. 'His waistcoat is only button'd at the bottom, that the magnificence of his lace may not he conceal'd.' 1769. Letters oflady Mary Coke. (I770's.) The skirts diverged at an angle from just below the waist, and the waistcoat from now on was usually worn closed. (1 780's.) Skirts short, diverging from mid-line at a wider angle; or having a straight horizontal border without skirts and known as a square-cut, or Newmarket. (1 790's.) Square-cut was the rule.
Double-breasted waistcoat of a style of that decade; wom with a frock. (c. 1762.)
(i) Cofiarless, fitting round the neck or sloping to a short V in front (1750-1800). Small pointed lapels were sometimes added, from the 1770's.
(2) A small stand collar, from the 1760's; increasing in height in the 8o's and go's when the collar was cut back with a step to the front border, or to small lapels often standing forward. These$ if embroidered, were worked on both sides.
(2) Double-breasted Waistcoats (1750's.) A double row of buttons, close together down to the waist (rare). (1760's.) The waistcoat was buttoned at the waist with one to three or four buttons as for a single-breasted; but above this a wide overlap was buttoned up the right side ending in a large pointed lapel falling over the chest. The other lapel was usually tucked underneath. The corresponding row of buttons on the right side were placed somewhat widely apart from those on the left. This style was peculiar to the 6o's; and very rarely the skirts wore omitted for riding, leaving a straight-edged waistcoat. (1770's.) Very unusual but like the 1780's, with longer skirts, a low stand collar and lapels.
I750-1800 (1780's.) Very common, the two rows of buttons closely placed but diverging above the top button-hole towards the shoulders. A V-shaped opening at the neck was formed by pointed lapels stepped to a high or medium-Iiigh standing collar. The base of the waistcoat was either square-cut or had a wide angular cut-away. A characteristic feature of waistcoats of the 1780's, whether single- or double-breasted, was a small, generally white, silk fringe trimming which edged the lapels and the front border. Stripes were very prevalent. 'Fashions ... white striped Manchester din-@ty waistcoats trimmed with a small white fringe.' 1788. Ipstvichjournal, June. (1790's.) Throughout this decade the waistcoats were square- cut with the two rows of buttons placed more widely apart and with fewer of them, due to the shortness of the waistcoat and the low turn-back ofthe lapels. These vests were fuiished at the neck:
(i) with stand collar stepped to wide and fairly deep angular lapels, generally turned out over the lapels of the double-breasted coat.
(2) with a shawl collar; this was a low turned-down collar continuous with the lapel and without a step between. Under-waistcoats These, designed to be seen, came into fashion in the 1790's. They had shawl, or occasionally stand collars, appearing above the tumed-back lapels of the over-waistcoat; and were square- cut and closed with two or three buttons. The visible portion might he of bright silk, the rest of a quieter material. The under- waistcoat was often considerably shorter than the over-waistcoat, perhaps not more than some four inches deep. Under-waistcoats designed for warmth only and sometimes called 'caniisols' were in the nature of an undergarment; usually of flannel or similar material and sometimes made with sleeves, these were in occasional use throughout the second half ofthe century. Waistcoat buttons These were smaller than those of the coat, and when a suit of clothes was 'all of a piece' or 'ditto' the waistcoat buttons matched those of the coat; but not otherwise.
Thus, of a physician: 'When we see a snuff-coloured suit of ditto with holus buttons ... we know the wearer to be a dispenser of fife and death.' i755. The Connoisseur. In tailors' bills coat buttons were conunonly called 'coats' and waistcoatbuttons'breastbuttons'or'breasts'. Pockets Never more tlun two.
(i) With flaps sirnflar to those of the coat but smaller.
(2) Pectangular flaps over welted pockets from the 1770's.
(3) Straight welted pockets without flaps, from the 1780'5; a style always used in square-cut or double-breasted waistcoats.
(4) Occasion.-My no pockets, from the 1780'5; or flaps over sham pockets. 'Altering yr Casimere Waist & making welted pockets 216.' 1778. Wdts. County Pecords Office, Trowbridge. The Back This tended to be some inches shorter than the foreparts, with a deep central vent until about 1765 Or 62; subsequently the vent grew shorter and was often absent in the square-cut waistcoats. Cheaper material was commonly used for the back (except on the skirts on each side of the back vent); this economical device became general from the 1780's. Materials used were fi=el, frieze, coarse linen or canvas, but this might be covered with silk or satin in fine specimens. The back could be tightened by either pairs of tapes or ribbons. or by tabs perforated with lacing holes., these eyelet holes were not strengthened by metal rings (as in the following century). 'Tailor for fixing straps to waistcoat.' 1768. Diary of Sylas Neville.
There is no evidence of buckled straps being used. Sleeves These went out of fashion in the i7so's but were sometimes worn by the elderly to the close of the century.
In the 1790's sleeved waistcoats had a slight revival; like the coat of that date the sleeve of the waistcoat was gathered at the shoulder "m. 'To making a black silk Florentine waistcoat ... and sleeves.' 'Making sleeves to a black cloth waistcoat.' 1790. E.P,.0., Lord 1-loward accounts. Under-waistcoats worn for warmth usually had sleeves, and also waistcoats used as jackets by artisans, farmers, and servants when riding or when not in ceremonial livery. ,stolen, 5 lad's waistcoats made ofjersey with sleeves to theni, 4 Of green frize with sleeves.' I 786. Ipswichjournal.
Double-breasted waistcoat with stepped-stand collar and wide blunt- angle lapels. Worn over under-waistcoat wldch has a rolled collar. Cravat tied in a how. Hairin the'Brutus crop'style. (1793.)
Breeches continued to be made on the same lines as those de- scribed in section 1; but they became increasingly closer fitting; and from the end of the i77o's were often spoken of as small- clothes. 'A gentleman ... in smauclothes.' 1779. Diary ofjohn Crosier. Methods ofclosure
(i) Whole falls or small falls, the latter predominating.
(2,) Buttoned down the front with exposed flap containing the button-holes; a method very rare after 1750. The 'fly' closure did not occur in the eighteenth century. Some points to he noted in the breeches of the second half of the century: (1750's) (i) Fashionable breeches were short, often exposing the knees. Monsieur 'a la mode: 'breeches must not cover his knees.' 1753. London Magazine.
Roll-up stockings over the breeches, though still worn by some, were old-fashioned.
'What gendeman now rolls his stockings? Or lets his breeches cover die cap ofhis knees?' 1753. Tract Of 1753.
(2) Decorative ribbon garters were sometimes worn for display. a ribband deck his knees,
Dangling ribbands alwaysplease.
1755. 'The Beau' in London Magazine.
(3) Knee buckles, small and square. (1760'5)
(i) Breeches worn well over the knees again.
(2.) Knee buckles small, or medium large and square. (1770's)
(i) Knee buckles medium large and square; small oval shape towards I 778.
(z) Ribbon ties occasionally replaced buckles, especially among the Macarortis. (1780'5)
(i) Breeches tight-fitting and long in the body and legs. 'Common dress . . . the breeches made excessively high-waisted, long over the knees and to set very tight. 7 or more buttons at the knees.' 1786. Ipswichjournal, Aug. But 4 or 5 buttons were also common.
(2) Braces buttons, one on each side in front, began to appear at the end of this decade.
(3) Embroidered kn'ee-bands came in from c. 1787. 'The breeches .. . if strictly according to the haut ton are embroidered at the knee bands.' 1787. Ipswichjournal.
(4) Knee buckles:
Large and oval, placed vertically; the knee-band being made with a short dip to accommodate them. Square buckles worn for full dress.
'The fashionable full dress ... the knee@buckles are square.' 1786. Ipswichjournal, June. Round buckles were rare. Strings in place of buckles were occasionally used.
(1790'S) Buckles oval at first; but from c. I794 most knee-bands were tied and not buckled. 'Putting strings to breeches il.' 1794. Wflts. Records, Wynclham Accounts.
(a) Breeches of the suit shown on Pi. 6 i - Short-bodied with small fails; narrow side pockets; one fob pocket. (1764.)
(b) Breeches with long body and legs and embroidered knee-bands. Small falls, wide side pockets; two fob pockets. Note braces buttons, one only on each side in front. (1787 on.)
Worn from early 1790's on. These were close-fitting tights shaped to the leg and ending at or just above the ankles. They were buttoned up on the outer side as far as the calf, and some- times also pulled in round the ankle with a running string. They were made with fall closures. Apart from artisans and a few eccentrics these were not worn by civilians. 'Robbers dressed in white frocks and trousers.'1750. IP£wich journal, Oct.
'Young fellows so fond of boots at all hours, except when on horse- back and then nothing but a white trouser, neat silk stockings and a pair of dancing pumps.' 178o. General John Burgoyne, The Lord of the Manor. BRAcFs, known as cALLowsEs These began to come into general use from c. 1787. With the high waistline of the breeches which no longer clung to the hips a support became necessary. Fashionable braces were made of lengths of ribbon with buttonholes at each end to be attached to the breeches buttons, two in front and two behind. The braces were usuauyjoined by a straight piece at the back and not crossed over until the late 1790 5. 'Making ... pair of gauowsay 19.'1794. Wytidhatn Accotints.
MATERIALS FOR COATS AND SUITS
Coats and frocks for ordinary wear were made of cloth of various kinds. 'Coat of that cloth called thunder & lightn@ig.' 1766. Oliver Gold- smith, The Picar of Wakefield.
(a) Breeches with small falls; fob ribbon dangling from fob pocket. (1792.) (b) Pantaloons worn with Hussar buskins. Frock coat with lapels. Natural hair flowing onto the shoulders. (1795.)
(a) Garter of purple silk fined with white satin, 221 in. long and ' in. 4 wide. (h) Breeches knee-band buckle, gilt, i I x ii in. (c) Back view of same showing flange to fit into button-hole.
For humble ease, ),e powers spray
Coats for dress wear: brocade, silk, satin, tabby and velvet with many varieties. Velvet was Particularly fashionable in the 176o's. p Striped materials in the 1780's. 'The gentlemen have taken to wear tastas which, like the cloth, are all striped, some of which have four and others three colours, but the most fashionable only two, crimson and white.' 1788. 1PswichjOurnal, June. Suits might be all of a piece a snuff-coloured suit of ditto.' 1755. The Connoisseur. ---or coat and breeches might match with a different waistcoat; or all three might be of diferent materials, a fashion starting in the 1770's and very common in the 1780's. 'An entire suit of cloth is hardly ever seen except upon old people, physicians, apothecaries, and lawyers.' 1777. Gentleman's and London Magazine. 'I desired my taylor to make me a plain suit of clothes; next day he brought me a blue frock, a scarlet waistcoat, with gold buttons, and a pair of black silk breeches. 1 should have preferred a plain suit all of a piece but he shut my mouth, saying it was quite the fashion, that every- body wore it.' 178 5. The Lounger. 'At present the waistcoat, stockings and breeches are an different. Even the coat itself and the lining is different.' 1787. Ipswichjournal. The Dandy had always been a colourful spectacle: 'A Dandy in a black velvet coat, a green and silver waistcoat, yellow velvet breeches, and blue stockings.' 175 1. The Inspector. Wedding Suits For these there appears to have been no fired rule. We meet a bridegroom 'in a white coat and blue satin vest, both embroidered in silver.' 1762. T. Smollett, Sir Lancelot Greaves.
Another in 'A suit of Pourpre du Papt, silk stockings with broad blue and white stripes, and lace rufllcs and frill. . . . Fhs hair was dressed in curls on either side with an immense toupee and finished with a small bag.' i 7,72. J. T. Sniith, Nolleketts and his Times. Lord Stonnont's wedding coat (1776) was brown cloth cin- broidered with foils. Mouming Mouniing suits were always black and of a piece. 'Making a suit of mouming cloathes ... of fme black shalloon.' 1764. E.R.O. DIDBY. A23. Weepers 'Mourners clap bits of muslin on their sleeves and these are called weepers.' 1762. 0. Goldsmith, The Citizen ofthe World. Courtmouming At the death of Frederick, Prince of Wales: 'The men to wear black cloth without buttons on the sleeves or pockets, plain muslin or long lawn cravats and weepers. Shammy shoes and gloves, crape hatbands, and black swords and buckles.' 175 1. Gentleman's Magazine. Court Dress Towards the end of the century dress coats were less elaborate, the former gorgeous effects surviving in the waistcoat. By that date Court dress was thus described: 'The gentlemen were chiefly in military uniform... and the ladies in velvet; the former certainly portrayed the state of the country.... The King was elegantly dressed in a prune-coloured broadcloth coat and white satin waistcoat, embroidered.' 1795. Salisburyjournal. Materiaisfor Frocks Other than cloth, fustian, rateen and tabinet were fashionable; For the people, tliickset, drill and frieze. Materialsfor Waistcoats Cassiincre; velveret (new in 1769); corduroy; swanskin, striped or washing; striped linen; fancy waistcoats in silks with embroidery or tambour work. White silk fringe to the lapels and front borders was'the rage'during the 1780's. Italian silk embroidered in delicate discrete floral patterns came into fashion in the 1770's. Materialsfor Breeches Everlasting, feamought, sheepskin, doeskin, tliickset and shag were worn by the people. For the fashionables, buckskin, linen, cassimere or cashmere, Manchester cottons (striped in cotton and wool), nankeen, corduroy, worsted cut shag, worsted knit, worsted denim; silk knit or stocking or stocking-net began to be the mode in the 176o's; patent satin and Florentine silk in the 1780's.
That plain warm suitfor every day,
Andpleasure and brocade bestow
Toflaunt it-once a month or so.
1750. Wm. ShcnstOnc.
Or MORNING GOWN
continued unchanged to the end of the century. This was usually tied with a girdle or sash round the waist, having a wrap-over front. 'Their garments only wrap over their breasts like a morning gown.$ 1762. London Chronicle. Some were tied with ribbon: 'We found the yowig gendenian sitting in an elegant chintz gown tied over the breast with a rose-coloured ribbon; his hair was on papffiotte; he had a white dimity waistcoat and a pair of white dimity breeches.' 1777. Gentleman's and London Magazine. These gowns were worn for case indoors instead of a coat or frock; never in place of the nightshirt which was the garment worn in bed. 'The modern manner of some of the nobility receiving company in their morning gowns.' 176-,. 0. Goldsmith, The Citizet# ofthe World. Nightgowns were also correct to wear while playing cards; when the inveterate gambler would also assume a straw bonnet to conceal his features. his gambling dress the silk nightgown, straw holiiiet, which the
The Steinkirk (See section I.) Very rare; worn only by old men not in the fashion. Thus, an old gentleman with: 'One of the knots of his tie hanging down his left shoulder, and his fringed cravat nicely twisted down his breast and thrust through his gold button-hole.' 1775. D. Garrick, Ban Ton. THE STOCK (See section I.) This neckcloth, folded closely round the neck, was buckled or tied beliffid. 'Bought ... a gold Stock Buckle £5.5.o.' i765. E.R.O. loc. cit. 'My business was to wait on him in a morning, buckle his shoes and rye on his neckcloth.' i 75 5. The Connoisseur. 'Advert. Stock-tapes ... newest fashioned plaited Stocks.' 1764. Boston Evening Post. The stock steadily increased in height and was sometimes ffiffened with pasteboard and very uncomfortable. 'My neck is stretched out in such a manner that 1 am apprehensive of having my throat cut with the pasteboard.' 176 i. Gentleman's Mag.zine. 'I wish that he who first changed long nerkelodu for such things as you wear had the wearing of a twisted neckcloth that 1 would give l@m.' 1775. D. Garrick, Bon Ton. The military black stock was also often worn by sporting young men on horseback. Stock buckles, though generally concealed by the wig, were often costly and might he of gold, silver, plated, pinchbeck, worked or plain, and sometimes set with diamonds. 'The Beau Parson ... his grinle is scarcely orthodox ... and is cropt behind to expose his diamond stock buckle.' 1755. The Con- rgoisseur. The Solitaire (See section I.) This was worn into the 1770's, usually with a bagwig: virtuous gentlemen of Aimack's use when at play.' 1772. London Magazine or Gentleman's Monthly Intelligencer, July.
This was similar though generally ofhumbler material. 'At last home 1 come, clap on my bedgown, my slippers, take off my gaiters, case my neckcloth.' 1789. Torrington Diaries. A DRESSING-GOWN, Closely resembled this, but the term is exceedingly rare. 'A flannel Dressing Gown i21.' 1778. Wflts. County Records, Trow- bridge.
THE POWDERING JACKET, more rarely called a
(seePlate93c) This was ankle-length or slightly shorter, and wrapped over in front, often with long revers. Sleeves with or without cuffi. 'To altering a flannel powdering jacket 513.' 1772. Manchester Records. 'Rob'd in a flannel powdering-gown.' 1775. T. Erskine.
This continued as described in section 1, but being more Ue a coat it was sometimes wom out of doors. It became extremely popular in the 1780's. 'Banyans are worn in every part of the town from Wapping to Westminster, and if a sword is occasionally put on it sticks out of the middle of the slit behind. This however is the fashion, the ton, and what can a man do? he must wear a banyan.' I785. Town and Country Magazine.
NECKWEAR THE CRAVAT
(See section I.) Worn as a dangling necktie, unfashionably by the elderly until the end of the 1760'5; but fasliionably by the Macaronis throughout the 1770's. 'The Macaronis ... the silken ornament worn by way of a cravat is of such importance to true taste, especially when the knot is elegantly fringed.' 1777. Gentleman's and London Magazine. The Macaroni Cravat was also made of muslin edged with lace and usually tied in a how under the chin, the ends dangling.
'A coxcomb wears a solitaire and uses paint.' 1771. T. Smollett, H&4ni,vlirey Clitiker. But what with my Nivernois hat can compare Bagivig and lac'd ruffles and black solitaire?
1766. Christopher Anstey, The New Bath Guide.
Occasionally, however, with a pio,-tlil wig:
First let down a taver tail
Ty'd with ribbon to incline
Twirl by tivirl, to spiral line For hisflotvitig solitaire.. . . 1764. Londot; Magazine or Gentleman's Monthly Intelligencer. The later style ofstock, again called a Cravat (from 178 5 on) This was usually of muslin wound two or three times round the neck and then knotted under the chin. The ends might he edged with lace on special occasions. 'A large muslin cravat three times round the neck, the ends of which are trimmed with a deep fine lace edging and tied in a large knot under the chin.' 1788. Ipswichjournal, Fashion article, Oct. WRIST WEAR Shirt sleeve ruffles continued but tended to he smaller. From 1790 they were discarded by those sympathising with the French Revolution, as a political gesture.
THE SURTOUT, GREAT COAT or CAPED COAT
This overcoat was large and loose, and followed the cut of the frock, retaining, however, the front skirt which was not sloped away from the mid-line. It reached to below the knees. Long surtouts were fashionable in the 1780's, being frequently mentioned:
'The other morning he came to the coffee house without his breeches. it is true he lud a long surtout on and did not expose himself in the street.' 1782. Town and Country Magazine, Jan.
The neck had from one to two or three broad falling collars known as capes. When multiple they overlapped in steps, the
uppermost falling close round the neck and often faced with velvet.
'Brown cloth great coat' with deep pockets, jockey boots and 'a large English oak stick'. (1 773.)
(a) Great-coat, round hat, top-boots. (c. i 79o.) (h) Great-coat with two capes; heavyjack-boots (coachman's costume). (1786.)
(1) Single-breasted to just below the waist, wit!, large metal buttons. The collar was often buttoned up to the chin in cold weather. Lapels were unusual. (2) Double-breasted, with lapels: 'Surtouts have now four laps on each side which are called Dog's cars; when these pieces are unbuttoned they flap backwards and forwards.' 1762. London Chronicle. Metal buttons were usual. Pockets generally had flaps; vertical openings were less common and usually placed far back. Sleeves were ample with round cuffs and buttons along the upper border, though occasionally placed vertically.
Go to the first part, 1700-1750
These were reserved for the army, the learned professions, and for funerals. 'Advert. Hussar cloaks, ROqueflOs. . - .' 1766. Ipswichjourtial. 'A large cloak of superfme scarlet like the red roquelaure of an old gentleman in former days.' 178 i. G. Colman, Random Records. '(funeral expenses) 6 superfine gents cloaks 9/S. ' 178 5. Benenden Letters. Materialsfor Surtouts
Drab, cloth, duffle, frieze, Bath coating, £waterproof cloth', rateen. A beau returned from Paris had 'his great coat of silk lined with marten skins.' 1774. London Magazine or Gentleman's Monthly Intelligencer. THE SPEN CER (i 79o on into the nineteenth century)
This was a coat without tads, being a short-waisted jacket with a stand-fall collar and cuffed sleeves; buttoned by a few buttons down the front. It was worn out of doors over the coat or frock.
(a) Piding frock showing tack-over back vent, and skirts caught back. Fop-boots; taU round hat. (i,79s.) (b) Spencer worn over double- )reasted coat. Loiig breeches with ties. Short Hessians. Young niaii @tartled at sight of his new fangled cropped hair, in a niirror (Sec,p. Z47-) (1795.)
(a) Piding frock and tall hat. (c. 1786.) (h) Spencer worn frock. 'Round riding hat with a broad brim flapped dom tOP-b0Ots. (1787.)
These continued on the same lines as described in section 1 with certain modifications: Toes, rounded until the end of the 1780'8; then bluntly pointed, to the end of the century, though round toes continued to be worn. 'The shoe long and low-quartered, high heels, narrow soles and much pointed at the toes.' 1786. Ipswickjournal, Fashion article. 'The long-toed shoe ... of a modem fine gentleman.' I799. The Times. Tongues Rounded and projecting only slightly above the buckle. The uppers, however, were cut much lower, shifting the buckle nearer to the toey in the fashionable shoe during the 1770'S; and lower still by the 1790's when the terms 'shoe' and 'slipper' were often used indiscriminately. 'Their shoes are scarce slippers, and their buckles are within an inch of the toe.' 1772. Description of a Macaroni, Town and Country Magazine. Heels might be moderately high, some very high, in the 1750'5: . and the heels of his shoes wore so high as to raise his feet three inches at least.' 1753. T. Smollett,.Ferdinand Count Fathom. From the 1760's heels were low and square, becoming very flat in the 1790's. Red heels were Court wear and for full dress until c. 176o; then out of fashion until 1770 when they were revived by Charles james Fox. 'I do not indeed wear ... red heels which would W suit my age.... At your age (it is correct).' 175 i. Lord Chesterfield's Letters. 'P,ed heels a wise man will ridicule.' 17sq. Thomas Marriott. Fastenings (a) Buckles, to the end of the century but uncommon after 1793.
Many variations of individual taste, but the fashionable styles were:
(i) Medium size, square and generally worked in baroque designs, gadrooning, or interlacing patterns. 1750's.
(2) Medium size, square, oblong or ovoid; worked surface. 176o-1775.
(3) Very large, Oblong; curved over the foot, the surface smooth and without workings on it. 1775-1788. Maximum in 1777. The very large types were known as Artois buckles. 'Gentlemen wore enormous large shoe buckles ... the pre- posterous buckles called Artois ... are only the reigning mode in undress.' 1777. Centlefflatt's and London Magazine. 'The Beaus wore their buckles so very large that they were obliged to buckle them to the shoe with a false strap.' 1787. Diary ofjohn Crosier. 'All our young fops of quality, and even the lowest of our people in London, wear coach-harness buckles, the latter in brass, white metal, and pinchbeck; the former in silver weighing 8 or io ounces.'june 1777. The Getitlen;ati's and London Magazine.
(4) Fairly large oblong or oval. 1788--90'5. Buckles were made of gold, silver, pinchbeck or steel; and often set with Bristol stones, paste, or sometimes diamonds. The borders worked in fancy patterns, sometimes with mono- granu or initials. (b) Shoe-strings From 1785 on, replacing buckles so that in 1791 a deputation of master buckle-rnakers made a petition ... conse- quent on the fashion of wearing strings.'
Both mules and the later low shoes were known as slippers. They were often highly decorative for indoor-wear. e.g. blue morocco (1767), scarlet with yellow heels, red morocco with yellow heels. Those replacing shoes were worn out of doors. 'Gentlemen appear in public in slippers tied with black ribband.' 1785. Diary ofjohn Crosier. Decorative rosettes were worn from the 1770's.
(See section I.) Uncommon after 1760.
for men as distinct from women's, were coarse over- shoes with leather soles for town wear and wooden for the country. Materials Leather used for all footwear, with these variations:
Shoes: leather, grained leather, dogskin (very common for strong shoes); generally black, sometimes red. 'A new pair of red leather adorned with white stitches round the edges and made so neat that 1 cant bear to walk in them.' 176i. Centletnan's Magaziise. Black satin for dancing. Heels leather or cork.
Pumps: leather, single or double channelled, dogskin. S@ippers, red or blue morocco; often coloured heels$ Yellow or pink.
Heavy jackboots were worn chiefly by coachmen when worn at all. Light jackboots with the scoop out at the bend of the knee, were worn on horseback to the end of the century, though not fashionable.
jockey Boots, as described in section 1, remained fashionable to the end ofthe century but now with altered tops:
(i) The English tumed-over top sloping clown to a point in front..
(2) The French tumed-over top, cut straight round. Boot Carters were straps fixed to the boot and then passed round the leg above the knee, over the breeches, to keep the boot in position when riding. jockey boots, without spurs, became fashionable for walking in,, from the 1770's. 'The number of walking jockies is very numerous and the rage for boots by no means over.' 1786. Ipswichjournal, June.
1750-1800 The term top-boots came into common use instead of jockey boots, during the 1780's. jemmy Boots were specially smartjockey boots. Hussar Buskitis, worn by civilians from the 1780's, were long-toed short boots reaching to the calf, with a dip in front at the top, and a leather tassel each side. Hessians (1795 on) were short riding boots worn with pantaloons; they were calf-length behind but curved up to a point in front, ending just below the knee-cap with a decorative tassel. Hessians were made of fine black leather usually bound round the top with a narrow border of coloured leather. Higli-loivs (1750 on) were short boots ending below the calf, and laced up in front. They were worn only by labourers, servants, and country folk. GAITERS Spatterdashes, reaching above the knee, continued to be worn for riding until the i 78o's. Half-spatterdashes, reaching to below the calf, were worn by rustics and also by soldiers. Gaiters, a term used from about 1789, resembled half-spatter-dashes. 'To a pair of straps for gaiters.' 1791. E.P,.0. DID By. A 48. Spatterdashes were made of leather, wool, thread and cotton, and ofcloth. Gaiters were usually of leather. STOCKINGS Rollers or Pofi-ups continued to be worn occasionally through the 1750's but breeches gartered below the knee over the stocking was the fashionable style. Materials (knitted): thread, yarn, cotton, worsted, silk and cobweb silk. Stockings might he plain or fmely or coarsely ribbed. Colours: Black, white, blue, fight blue, nift and water, snuff colour, ash colour, brown. Patterns: diced (chequered) especially in the 1760's. Stripes very popular in the 1780's and go's; vertical stripes commoner in the former, horizontal in the latter decade; but
both were used from 178o. Black and white or blue and white were usual combinations.
(a) Top boots with boot-garters. 'Bicorne' hat. (1786.) (b) Lightjack- boots showing scoop out behind the knee. Atlitary style ofriding frock. 'Bicorne, riding hat. (1788.)
In the 1790's speckled and zigzag patterns were seen. Figured stockings, from 1785 on, were knitted with a decorative pattern. 'Common dress stockings broad-ribbed, figured or plain, the stripes cidier horizontal or perpendicular.' 1786. IPsiviclljOurtial.
Clocks might be figured or embroidered as in section 1.
Boot stockings continued in use; now generally made of thread.
(a) Long spatterdash. (h) Lightjack-boot. (c) Hussar buskin. (d) Eng- 6hjockey or top-boot. (c) Hessian. (f )French top-boot.
These were usually twisted twice round the leg below the knee and tied. They were either hidden under the knee-band of the breeches or allowed to dangle down the outer side of the leg, when they were often tasselled. Other garters were buckled below the knee-band and were visible. Materials Silk; gold or silver thread; cloth; list (a cheap kind of garter). Decoratioti Carters might be embroidered or figured, the design being woven in the garter.
THE THREE-CORNERED HAT
. (The name 'Tricome' was never used.) Various names were given to this, according to the width of the brim and the method ofturn-up or'cock'. Brims were usually bound with braid and often trimmed with a fringe of ostrich feathers until the 176o's. Subsequently single plumes were used. styles
This, continued through the 1750's and 6o's, was large. broad-brimmed and with a high cock in front. 'Tlic broad brlinmed staring Keveiihuller.' 1754. 'Ihe COutiOisseur.
THE MILITARY HAT
This was broad-brimmed, high cocked, close to the crown, and trimmed with a cockade. The brim was laced (i.e. edged with braid). it was often adopted by smart young men. 'A cockade in his hat marked him for a rnitary man.' 1785. The Lounger, Feb.
THE SAILOR'S COCK
A hat forming an equilateral triangle with the brims joined to the crown.
(a) Fantail hat. (h) Round hat and queue turned up. (c) Round hat with hatband and buckle. (d) Fantail hat, wig with catogan queue. (All i 786.)
THE DETTINGEN COCK
Discarded in the 1750's. (See section I.)
THE DENMARK COCK
High behind and low in front.
THE MACARONI HAT
This was a small three-comered hat sometimes trimmed with a feather. 'His hat was only a bit of black silk.' 1785. The Lounger. 'Hats an inch in the brim that do not cover but lie upon the head.' 1772. Totipti and Country Magazine.
THE FANTAIL HAT
The brim was turned up sharply in front with a high peak from which the brim borders sloped down each side to the base of the back brim. The brim behind, semi-circular (like an open fan) stood up straight at the back of the hat. The flat-topped crown was visible only at the side gaps.
This hat was often trimmed with a button and loop on the left side, and if worn by the military, with a feather or cockade. 'A fine faiitail hat 2 i 1. stamp 21.' 1788. Wilts. Records, Wyndhant Accounts. The hat tax at that date was 21.
THE CHAPEAU BRAS
Although, owing to the heat of wigs, hats were constantly carried under the arm for choice, the chapeau bras was made for this purpose only. It was an evenly cocked three-cornered hat, flat; the brims fastened to or resting on, the crown, and sometimes trimmed with a feather. 'Your chapeau bras? ... These hats are for the arm only.' 1779. Mrs. Cowley, Who's the Dupe. 'White feather in the chapeau bras is still the fashion.' 1786. lpswichjourtial,June.
THE OPERA HAT
A flat three-comered hat. 'Then his opera hat like this (an eyeglass) must he flat.' i762. 1. Bickerstaff@, Liotiel and Clarissa.
THE NIVERNOIS HAT
Fashionable in the 176o's.
Unlike the ordinary three-cornered shape it had a low round crown and a very wide brijn rolled over at the edges into a very broad triangle, with the peak in front. 'He wears this large umbrellalike hat. This is the ... Nivernois- or a never-enough.' 1765. London Magazine, Lecture on Heads. 'Nivernois or waterproof hats.' 1764. Advert., London Magazine and Gentleman's Intelligencer. 'Waterproof 'because of its unibreHa-Ue protection.
THE QUAKER HAT
This was siniflar but with a taher crown and a more defniite, though open, cock. The size of the ordinary three-cornered hat had fashionable variations; some large . 'A hat the fore corner ofwhich projected near two inches further than those of each side and moulded into the shape of a spout.' 1753. Hawksworth, The Adventurer. 'For evening ... the forecorner of my hat was considerably elevated and shortened so that it no longer resembled a spout but the corner of a mincepie.' 1753. 10c. cit.
Some small: (a beau) Cock his beaver neat and well,
Beaver size ofcockleshell.
i755. London Magazine.
'Hats are now worn upon an average six inches and three fifths broad in the brim.' i 76:z. London Chronicle.
'The hats increase in size.' 1777. Gentleman's and London Magazitge. THE
(modern name). 1780's On.
The brim was turned up high in front and behind, obscuring the crown. The front brim was pinched into a slight peak and often trimmed on the left side with a small rosette or cockade. it was frequently worn when on horseback.
THE ROUND HAT
Although previously unfashionable this came into fashion in the 1770's especially for riding; by the end of the century the reign of the three-comered hat was over.
The round Hat had a round, flat-topped crown and a flat, uncocked brim. It was usually made of beaver.
During the 1770's the crown was moderately high and the brim large.
In the 1780's the crown was high, narrowing upwards, and the brim large.
In the 1790's the crown was tall and straight or, by i795, often widest at the summit, and the brim small and generally rolled up on each side.
'The hatter has of late years perpetually diminished the little brim he allows us.' 1799. The Times. Intermediate shapes also occurred through these decades. Round hats might be stiff or soft (known as 'flapped' in which the brim was flabby). The usual trimming was a hatband buckled in front, and nothing else.
'One of the highest pliactons 1 had ever seen rattled up to the gate, out of which umped a complete Buck in his round hat and leather breeches.' 1776. Gentleman's and London Magazine.
'A round riding hat with a broad brim flapped down and a double hatband.' 1785. The Lounger. 'A fine round hat Stamp 21.' 1783. Wilts. Records, Wynd- hatn Accounts.
White hats had a vogue in the i,7,7o's and early 8o's.
'White hats, thank Heaven, are beginning to disappear.' 1781. London Magazine or Gentleman's Monthly Intelligencer.
Round hats of various shapes. (i 79o's.)
jocKEY caps with peaks continued in use to the end of the century; worn on horseback or for sport. Made of velvet or cloth and generally trimmed with a band round the crown buckled in front. 'A small round jockey hat, with a green and gold hatband buckled in front with a high polished steel buckle.' 1788. 1PswichjOurnalJuIY.
, With round crown and closely turned up brim sometimes divided in front, were worn for comfort on journeys. Usually made ofworsted.
, usually worn with nightgowns, continued as described in section 1. Velvet common, or linen or both together.
'He wore a red velvet cap widiin which was one of fine Uneny die last turned up two or three inches over the lower edge of the velvet. He also wore a blue damask gown.'1782. New Englapxd Weekly journal.
'For a cotton and worsted shaving cap 213.' 1793. WOOdforde Diary.
Nightcaps. (a) (1754.) (b) (1785.) MEN Night caps ofwool were wom in bed. 'I was going to put on my night cap ... 1 could find no cap, so went to bed without it and caught a most terrible cold.' 1779. Letter from the Rev. Warner to George Selwyn.
Wigs were worn by all classes until the last decade of the cen- tury except for a brief interlude about 1765 when among younger men it was modish to wear the natural hair.
This threat to their industry caused the master peruke makers to petition the King .setting forth the distress ... from the decline of the trade occasioned by the present mode of men in ag stations wearing their own hair.' 1765. Gentleman's and London Magazine. Variations of the principal styles of wigs and their fanciful names were legion; but most ofthese were unimportant and short- lived.
The principal styles:
(a) WIGS WITHOUT QUEUES THE FULL-BOTTOMED wig, was rare and became reserved for legal and ecclesiastical dignitaries. 'Are not, even on the stage, fuu-bottonn discouraged?' 1753. Tract, Proceedings at a court ofHS4mour. THE BOB wiG. Both LONG BOBS and SHORT BOBS Con- tinued in use to the last decade. Several rows of curls, often broken up, round the back of the head, were more usual than a single roll. ]PULL-DRESS BOBS came into fashion in the 1760's. 'Full dress bobs from 176i. Ipswichjournal,Jan. 4i dress bob £ i. i i.6.' I791. E.P,.(. TI-IE SCRATCH BOB, usually the colour of the natural hair, covered part ofthe head, the natural hair being swept back from
the forehead and mingled with that of the wig by means of pomatum. Riding at Newmarket: .my brown scratch bob.' 1754. The COnHOisseur. The country Parson: 'his brown scratch bob.' 1756. loc. cit. 'Hair long enough to comb back over die foretop of my wig (iessamy or jemmy Scratch); for evening 1 changed to a queue.' J. Hawkesworth, A Greenhorn to a Blood. Scratch wigs, helping out the natural hair, were worn throughout the century, especially on horseback or by the common people. 'To i natural scratch wig £ i. i i.6.' 1790. E.R.O. DID By A 48. THE PHYSICAL WIG This from the 1750's on was worn by members of the learned professions, especially medical, largely replacing the full- bottomed wig. it resembled a long bob but was larger. It was swept back from the forehead with or without a centre parting; then from the level of the temples to wen below the cars, and standing out round the back of the head, often hanging below the nape ofthe neck. This 'physical bush' was either frizzed or arranged in massed horizontal roll curls. (physician's) 'good physical wig.' 176i. Gentleman's Magazine. 'What wags call a lion or a pompey.' 176i. loc. cit. Physicians' wigs were usually longer than those of others. CUT WIGS: These were short and uncurled; worn by the working classes. A farmer's: 'brown cut wig.' 1 759. 1PswichJOurnal. Note: wigs without queues covered the cars. (b) wics WITII QUEUES During the second half of the century these tended to be made sniauer and with fewer curls.
(a)- Cut-wig showing stock buckle. (1 750.) (b) Large bag-wig (corninoner in the 1770'5). (1750.) (c) Long physical wig. (1752.) (d) Cato- gan queue and fan-shaped 'staring wings' toup@e. (1772.) (c) Touoe with 'buckle' encircling back of the head-'the grecque'-and pigtail queue.(1777.) (f) Ramiflies plait turned up and held with a comb. (1786.)
The side curls, whether single or multiple, were rigid hollow rolls, lying horizontally, and frequently described as 'buckles'$ from the French'boucle'. Hence the somewhat misleading term 'a buckled wig' which meant, not that it carried a metal buckle, but was adorned with this type of rolled curl. This distinction is clearly indicated in the following, de- scribing a clergyman's wig: 'I am sure you must admire his dear wig; not with the bushyp brown buckles, dangling and dropping like a Newfoundland spaniel; but short, rounded off at the car, to sliew his plump cherry cheeks; white as a curd, feather-topped, and the curls as close as a cauliflower.' I 774. Samuel Foote, The Cozeners. A series ofthese rolls, one above the other, were described as 'buckles like gridirons.' 1777. Gentleman's Magazine. The rigid appearance was very noticeable. . the hair of a man of fashion. The plaistered pyramid of scented pomatum or those staring wings that give a frightful aspect to the wearer; or those immoveable buckles that destroy the grace of the flowing curls.' 1772. London Magazine or Gentleman's Monthly In- telligencer.
'rHE TOUIP@ E or FORETOIP and siDE CURLS The Toupe'e in the i 75o's The foretop was brushed straight back from the forehead, sometimes with a slight short parting. There were two or three horizontal roll curls on each side, often broken up to form several smaller curls, and usually covering the cars. The cars, however, were sometimes partly exposed. 'The fine young gentlemen of our tinie ... have drawn back the side curls quite to the tip of the ears.' 1754. The Connoisseur. The Pigeon-winged Toupee This was in vogue in the 1750's and 6o's. It had one or two stiff horizontal roll curls projecting above the cars, with the foretop and sides smooth and plain. Worn with various queues.
1750-ISOO 'A pigeon-winged toupee.' 1753. Tract, Court ofhumour. A bridegroom: .upon his head a bag-wig 1 la pigeon.' i762. T. SmoRett, Sir Lancelot Greaves. The Toupee in the 1760's (i) asinthci7so's. (2) From about 1764 it was brushed up and soon raised on pads, reaching the maximum height in the 1770's. One or two side curls partly uncovered the cars, as a rule. 'the new headdress of the men, which is exactly a sugar-loaf shape and very little lower.' i 766. Letters ofhorace Walpole. (3) The toup6e was sometimes brought to a peak over the forehead and then swept back at a diverging angle and slightly raised, resembling the front of a three-cornered hat. (176o's and 7o's). The Toupee in the 1770's Now raised on pads to varying heights. (i) Giving an egg-shaped elevation, sloping smoothly down to the queue behind. (2) Famed out above the temples-'staring wings'-but brought sharply down behind without covering the back of the head. With the 'staring wings' toup6e one curl encircling the head from temple to temple and exposing the cars, was common; and worn with a pig-tail wig. The toupee in the 178o's also called the Brush or Feathered Part The separation between toupee and side curls began to be discarded, although continued by some to the end of the century. Width began to take the place of height. From c. 1785 to 'gs the hair was swept back from the fore- head and temples, covering the cars and full and wavy or frizzed and bushy. A low loose roll curl below the cars was sometimes present. 'A full dress is 5 curls, which when wore, fdls up the side of the head considerably more by which means there is less top or feather.' i782. Plocacosmos byjames Stewart, hairdresser. 246 The Grecque 'The hair is dressed in two long curls on each side, and a Grccque behind, like a horseshoe. It is tied behind in a long tail 1 la Panurge.'1787. ipsivichjournal, Oct.
IN 1795 A TAX ON HAIR-POWDER led to the abandonment of wigs and the fashion for these ended with the century (except among the learned professions). Those who chose to pay the tax of a guinea earned the nick- name ofguinea-pigs. The wig commonly worn during the 1790's was one with a strained-back toup6e having a rigid roll-curl on each side and a short pig@@ queue. 'For wearing hair-powder without having obtained certificates ... fined C io each with costs.' 1797. Ipswichiournal. (Certificates of exemption from the tax were granted to certain professions, etc.' Natural Hair (i) The cropped head. ,A club has been formed called the Crop Club, every member of which is obliged to have his head cropped ... for the purpose of evading the tax on powdered heads ... the new crop is called the Bedford Level.' 1795. The Times. (Inspired by the Duke of Bedford and his political friends against Pitt's government.) (2) Natural hair flowing down to the shoulders 'in Vandyke curls'. (3) Brutus heads; long crops with a wind-blown dishevelled appearance. THE QUEUES These usudiy gave the name to the wig, although the toupees indicated the style, when these were worn. THE TYE (See section I.) A short bunch of curls tied at the nape of the neck. In the 70's this might he worn long and flowing. The 'Temple Tye' or 'Fox ear' had a cluster of side curls at the 247
1750-1800 temple, and was mainly niltary or naval, and then usually worn with a pig-tail.
THE RAMILLIES (As in section I.) From 1780 the plait was sometimes turned up and bound by a ribbon tie at the nape of the neck, or looped up high and secured by a comb to the back ofthe wig. THE PIG-TAIL WIG (See section I.) TMs continued to he worn into the 1790's. A fop: six yards ofribbon bind His hair en baton behind. 1762,. 1. Bickersta&, The Hypocrite. Curls on their sides, toupees before, you'lifind With tails like monkies, dangling down behind. 1773. Gentleman's Magazine. Variations
(i) Two long queues, side by side, were occasionally worn in the 1770's, but were mainly French. Short queues became increasingly common from the 1780's.
(2) The Military Queue; worn by all and very common from the i,7So's; short and thin, tied tightly above and below where it was frizzed out like a sweep's brush.
(3) A short thick tail, sometimes turned up on itself, was also worn in the 1780'5, but less conunon than the military tail. '(common dress) The hair dressed with the toupee full and wide; the curls at the sides very large and low; the queue or twist tied closer to the head and large as usual.' 1786. Ipswi'chjournal, Aug. TIIE BAG-WIG (See section I.) Worn for dress and full dress. A rosette instead of a stiff bow at the back was often worn. (See Plate 92.) 'Pray order your servant to buy me four bags; let them be rather large, with a large plain rosette.' 1766. Henry St. John to George Selwyn. A large bag was fashionable in the 1770's: 'A bag at Ranclagh is often a troublesome appendage to a man's head ... and at present such unmerciful ones are worn that a little man's shoulders are perfectly covered with black satin.' 1774. Lotidon Maga- zine or Gentleman's Monthly Intelligencer.
(a) Physical wig. (1755-1756.) (h) Style Of 1750's aiid 6o's; tye-wig; the frock with style of collar common at the period. (c) Physical tye- wig. (1758.)
THE CATOGAN Or CLUB WIG
Worn from the end ofthe i 76o's. The queue was broad and flat, turned up on itself and tied round the middle, forming a vertical bow of hair. It was very popular in the 1770's especially among the Macaronis who favoured extremely large catogans. 'For in an undress, unless you have a club as thick as both your double fists, you are not fit to be seen.' 1769. George Colman, Man and Wife.
(a) Side view of catogan or club wig. (c. 1770.) (b) Side view of Ramiflies queue tumed up and tied. (c. i78o.)
This was a military wig though worn by civilians on special occasions, through the 17So's, 6o's, and 70's, and occasionally later. It resembled a Bob wig with two corkscrew curls tied together at the nape of the neck to form a double queue behind. 'The two locks of my major perriwig.' 1753. J. Hawkesworth, The Adventurer. 'His peruke, which is naturally a kind of flowing Bob, but by the occasional addition of two tails it sometimes appears as a Major.' 1754. The Connoisseur, JUIY. '(A French Peruke@-maker and friseur) has invented a species of major or brigadier or lieutenant-colonel wigs, for the better sort of citizens and tradesmen, which by adding a tail to them-the wigs-that may be taken off or put on at pleasure, may serve when they do duty in militia or go to a company's feast.' 1764. London Magazine or Gentle- man's Monthly Intelligencer.
THE BRIGADIER wiG was wiotlier name for the mflitary wig with a double queue and was the name used in France. 'Hence we hear of the brigadier or the major for the army.' 1782. Ploracosmos byjames Stewart, hairdresser. N.B. The incorrect description of Brigadier and Major wigs, appearing in an anonymous note among the Rev. james Granger's
(a) Major wig. (1755.) (h) TYC-wig. (1772.)
papers, has been discussed in the second part of the Introduction. See P. 39. Other named Wigs:
THE CAXON. (See section I.) Always white or very fair. Thus, at the theatre: All were attentionfix'd upon the stage,
And slighting Beaux in Tetes, in Queus and Bags,
Preferr'd old Lear's Caxon and his rags. 1768. Poem by R. Lloyd.
THE SPENCER WIG (1740'5 and 50's, see section 1)
THE PERUKE NAISSANTE Or A L'ENFANT (1780's but uncommon) the hair behind falling loose and long down the back without being tied. Extracts from Plocacosmos or The Whole Art of Hairdressing, byjames Stewart (London, 1782). '. . . As the perukes became more common their shape and forms altered. Hence we hear of the clerical, the physical, and the huge tie peruke for the man of the law, the brigadier or major for the army and navy; as also the tremendous fox-car or cluster of temple curls with a pig-tail behind. 'The merchant, the man of business and of letters were distinguished by the grave full-bottom, or more moderate tie, neatly curled; the tradesman by the snug bob or natty scratch, the country gentleman by the natural fly and hunting peruke. 'All conditions of men were distinguished by the cut of the wig, and none more so than the coachman who wore his, as there does some to this day, in iniitation of the curled hair of a water-dog.... 'Peruke is now used for a set of false or borrowed hair, curled, buckled and sewed together on a frame or caul.... 'From the beginning of the century to the year 1745 the hair in private was worn in the most simple manner. About the above period we fmd the toupee irons first made use of for the front of the hair which was curled, and then turned back under the cap, which cap was also a new plan; this was the first stage of wire caps, which reached about the middle of the head behind, with small wings on each side, and the hair in a few buckles hanging carelessly in the neck.... Soon after the above date we find the French curls made their first appearance in Paris and consequently soon after here.
(a) Simple toup@e and small side curls. (i78o.) (b) The same but note 1my breast buckle, it is a diamond one and cost me £20'. (1783.) (c) Bushy toup6e and low side curls. (i789.) (d) Long-and probably natural-hair. (x795.)
'They look like eggs strung in order on a wire, and tied round the head. 'At the same time also appeared the French crape toupee, also the strait smooth or English dress. All these the English had made in false hair a notion of cleanliness which they improved in being at first averse to powder; but soon after they had their own hair drest in all the different fashions. 'Some time after came up the Scoflop-sheR or Italian curls, as also the German. 'The scollop or shell were curls in three rows done back from the face in their several shapes. 'The German were a mixture of scollop-shen and French in the front curled all over behind, or'tete de mouton'. 'After that came long curls, that is, French, but considerably higher with the points rising as they went back; also the toupee with two curls down over wool, were worn at this time. 'It is not above 12 Or 13 years since cushions were first wore. Then they appeared like an exceedingly small woman's pin-cushion; but from this cushion the plan of the hair has ever since depended on. The hair has been wore higher since; wider, narrower, lower, heavier, lighter, more transparent, more craped, smoother etc; with i curl, 2 curls, 3, 4, 5 curls, and no curls at all; but all from the same foundation.' Materials usedfor Wigs (i) Hair Horsehair. human hair, goat's, cow's hair; hair from calves' tails; fox tails. (.z) Textiles Mohair, worsted, thread and silk. (3) Wire Copper and iron wire in spiral curls, often known as iron or wire wigs. 1750's to 70's. 'brought from Paris an iron wig; you literally would not know it from hair.' 175 i. Letters ofhorace Walpole. 'A certain peruke-maker has distanced all his brethren by a new invention of making a wig of copper wire which will resist all weatliers and last for ever.' 1750. Ipstvichjournal, May. (4) Feathers These, usually drake's or mahard's, were used for the fore-
Perruques 'naissante' or 'a 1'enfant'. Both show the frills known as 1chitterlings' down the front of the shirt. (1781.)
(a) and (h). Both variations of toup@es of the early 1790's. (c) Typical pigtail of the 1790's. (1793.) (d) Physical bob-wig. (1796.)
top or toup&. Parson's 'feather top' wigs were very conimon, and feathers were also used for sporting wigs. 'Very durable wigs, not to be hurt at least by wet, made of the single feathers in mallards'tails.'1750. 1PswichjOtgrl;al, MaY. 'Stolen. Brown and grizz'd wigs, some with feathered tops.' 175 5. Boston Neivs Letter. 'The Parson's featlier-top fdzzed broad and high.' 1775. G. Colman, Prologue to Bon Ton. (Advert.) 'Gcndemen's perukes for sporting made of drakes' tags.' 1761. lpstvichjournal, Jan. (s) Cork 'John Light, peruke-maker, has brought to great perfection the best method of making Cork Wigs, either smooth or in curls; and also Cork Bag-wigs in the neatest manner.' 1763. Advert., Salisbury journal, Oct. Hair Powder Wliite powder (starch) was correct for dress wear, but other colours, greyl flaxen, and blue, were used. 'Charles janies Fox had his cliapeau-bras, his red-heeled shoes, and his blue hair-powder.' 1770. Montlily Magazine. A fashion which has no mention elsewhere is recorded in the Diary ofjohn Crosier: 'Much aversion as people ill general have to red hair, the appearance thereof was so much adniired that it becatne the fashion, for all the Beaus, and Bells wore red powder.' MaY, 178 I-'.
Wigs were made brown, grizzle, or black for other than dress occasions. A black stain was obtained by the use of lead combs, and black wigs were the conventional disguise of highwayman (and ill the theatre, of murderers). Powder was applied by means of a powder blower, a dredger, or a powder puff, the wearer of the wig protecting his face by a mask and his clodies by a powdcrhig jacket or soiiictli-nes a long, loose powdering gown. '(Expenses on a tour) for a powder bagg, two powder puffs and two
Caricatures, with their captions, of the period.
combs; for pomatum and four pounds of powder.' 1777. Herbert Papers. 'For a powder puff for my Wiggs pd. 21.' 1789. Diary of Rev. James Woodforde.
A month's hairdresser's bill to an Oxford undergraduate, in 1778:
A4 Sundays dressings 410
2 net caps S/
4 prs roulers 21 (of baked clay, sausage-shaped, round which the curls were rolled)
2 pounds powder 21
swansdown puff 216
4 yds. rihond 21 (for queues) hair cutting
11 hair comming 1 1
2 pots oringe POmatum 416
Pr cold irons i/6.'
Wilts. Record Office, Trowbridge.
rHE FACE Throughout the century, among the fa&Wonables, the face was clean-shaven. Occasional exceptions appeared among the working-classes. '(A cordwainer) a full beard ... lately wore his own black hair, but went off in a brown wig.' 1759. Ipswichjournal, Jan. '(Heel-maker) a thin beard except on the upper bp where it is very strong and full; went off in a grey cut wig.' 1759. 10c. cit.
(a) A powder puff. (b) to (c) A Hairdresser applying powder to a gentle- man in 1-iis powdering gown. The lady's cardinal on the table. (c. 1770.)
ARTIFICIAL AIDS TO ELEGANCE 'The Gentlemen too have their Todectes set out with washes, per- fumes, and cosmetics; and wffi spend a whole morning in scenting their linen, dressing their hair, and arching their eyebrows.' 1754. The Connoisseur, Oct. For the gentleman of leisure the art of dressing was a laborious business. 'A slovenly fehow might bustle into his clothes in an hour, but a gentleman could scarcely dress in less than two.' 26o MEN Rouge was extensively used by beaux until the 1790's, applied by means of Spanish wool impregnated with carmine. 'We are indebted to Spanish wool for many of our masculine ruddy countenances."755. The Connoisseur, Apdl. 'A wealthy young fop ... always painted up to the eyes with the deepest carmine.' 1786. Retrospections ofdorothea Herbert. 'A fop ... his lips covered with the liveliest red.' 1777. Gentleman's and London Magazine, Dec. False Calves, to improve the shape of the leg, were made witli parchment, pads, or bandages. 'Fhs stays laced, his ankles rolled ... with six yards of flannel roller to sweat the small and prop the cal£' 178o. General John Brrgoyne, The Lord ofthe Manor. 'Your legs are mere sticks ... when 1 have got my calves 1 shall he quite another creature.' 1782. Town and Country Magazine,June. 'The skill of the ancients knew nothing of that creative power which extends to ... the parchment calves.' 178 5. The Lounger, June.
GLovEs continued as described in section 1. High-topped gloves went out of 6hion but continued for riding, when they were often made with small gauntlets. 'Who dare appear now in high-topped gloves?' 1753. Tract, Court ofhumour. 'Advert. Gentlemen's riding gloves and glove tops of all sorts.' 1766. Ipswichjournal, Dec. Materials As in section 1; but in addition: Woodstock gloves, of fawn-skin; very popular from 1770. York tan gloves, from 1780. Black shammy and lamb gloves continued to be worn at funerals. Dogskffi gloves, for country wear. HANDKERCHIEFS Silk ones, often very ornamental, were used by snuff-takers. 'Stolen. 2, silk handkerchiefs, one of them red and yellow, coronation pattern.' 1762. SalisburyjournaL
1750-1800 L,a,%m or cambn'c handkerchiefs were edged with lace for dis- play, and often scented. A mouchoir with musk, his spirits to cheer, Though he srents the whole room that no soul can come near. 1763. Tract, Court of Humour. Coloured handkerchiefs were also used. 3 purple bordered handkerchiefs 313. 3 red ditto 416.' 1775. Manchester Archives. The word muckitider was still used inelegantly. '(for snuff-taking) when 1 see a man every niinute stealing out a dirty niuckffider, then sneaking it @i again. . . .' 1754. The Connoisseur, Sept. MUFFS These continued to be worn by the beaux. Muffs were small but larger in the 1770's, and usually carried in the hand. 'I send you a decent sniaflish muff that you may put in your pocket and it costs but fourteen shillings.' 1765. Horace Walpole to George Sclwyn. 'I can never get you to dress like a Christian ... with your monstrous muff. 1 hate those odious muffs.' 1759. 0. Goldsmith, The Bee. Materials as in section 1. Muffetees or wrist muffs, were worn at cards. Each coat so trim, lest any speckfall on it An apron giiards-eachforchead a straiv bonnet; Nay, lest roiilcaiis themselves should soil their ri4 .ffles, A ititiffetee each pretty master inti .ffles. 1772. G. Colman, Prologue to A Wife in the Right. It was a habit of ardent gamblers to wear straw bonnets to con- ceal the face when playing cards.
(See section 1.
(See section I.) Long canes predoniinated though short ones were also used. A taper sivitcli was popular in the 1760's. 26z
'Walking sticks are now almost reduced to a useful size.'1762. London Chronicle.
'Strut about with walking sticks as long as leaping poles, or else with a yard of varnished cane, scraped taper ... tipt with a turned ivory head as big as a silver penny; wl-iich switch we hug under our arms.' 1762. London Chronicle.
(Introduced for men by jonas Hanway in 1756)
'A silk umbrella, or what the French call a Parisol, It is fastened in the middle of a longjapanned walking cane with an ivory crook head. It opens by a spring, and is pushed up towards the head of the cane when expanded for use.'1777. Westniiiister Magazine.
Umbrellas for men. however, were considered effeminate.
'The pliflosopliers of puppyism may he iiiet with in every part of the town, constantly with uinbreflas under their arms.' 1785. Totvti and Country Magazine.
FANS These were occasionally carried by fops.
These were very fashionable; two were frequently worn from the 1770's to the early So's. One of these was sometimes a sham. 'A fausse montre £4.14.6.' 1786. Manchester Records.
They were carried in the fob pockets ofthe breeches.
With a ivatch in each pocket, one lent by his mother,
To prove that one leg should keep time iiith the other. 1776. Gentleman's and London Magazine, March.
'All the very fine men wear two watches.' 1777. Diary of Mrs. Philip Lybbe Potvys.
The Modern Fop was described as wearing:
'A ring, two watches and a snuffbox gilt.'1777. Universal Magr, ziiie.
But presently, in the 8o's, one became more usual, carried in a fob or a waistcoat pocket.
1750-1800 'Very few with two watches. This fashion the gentlemen have now given up to the ladies.'1788. Ipsivichjournal, Jan. Fob Ribbons or Watch Ribbons, also Watch chains were very fashionable from the 1770's. Anchored to the watch in the pocket they hung down in short lengths, suspending 'gewgaws', seals and watch-keys.
A repeater by Graham, tvhich the hours reveals,
Almost overbalanced ivith knickknacks and seals. 1753. Salisburyjournal. Watch chains were of gold or gold and steel, orjewelled. 'Stolen. A watch chain set with diamonds.' 1795. Salisburyjournal. Gold seals cost from 181 to £i.i6.0. Of steel iol. Se2ls were often costly. 'EUicot would have for watch and chain 134 guineas; the seals will cost i 6 more.' 1759. HOracc Walpole's Letters. Watch keys might be decorative, sometimes with worked gold or enamelled handles. snu5Boxes As in section I. Sometimes made of curious materials. 'I ordered some snuff-boxes of coal to be sent to Madame de Guerchy which she had desired.' 1766. Horace Walpole, writing from Paris. A Breast Buckle or Brooch This was occasionally used, pinned to the shirt front between the ruffles which were normally unfastened. The diamonds or stones were thus framed by these frills and not hidden by the stock. Other Trinkets Tooth-pick cases: enamelled, painted, of tortoiseshell or green morocco; tortoiseshell tooth-picks. Also 'all sorts of worsted trinkets, purses of gold, silk and silver.' 1767 Advert., Salisburyjournal. THE FOP The Fop was a perpetual target for satire and caricature and a couple of descriptions may suffice: He's a mere compound ofa toyman's shop, Made up ofessence bottles, seals and rings, Oftooth-picks, snuff-box and such gewgaw things; His learning dangles in hisgolden chain, Sense,fine as amber, in his clouded cane. Soft silky coxcombsfull ofnice punctilio, All paste, pomatum, essence andpulvilio, With huge bouquets, like beaupots, dailygo, Tricked out like dolls to pace the Rotten Row. 1772. G. Colman, Prologue to A Wtfe in the Right. The bouquets were ofartificial flowers, often from Italy.
GARMENTS NOT IN GENERAL USE
THE JACKET, resembling a sleeved waistcoat. Worn by sailors, seafaring men of all types, sportsmen, postillions, ap- prentices and labourers. Sometimes also by soldiers. 'A seafaring man was in a bluejacket, white flannel waistcoat, and long trowse rs.'1771. Salisburyjournal. 'Fisherman apprentice in light-coloured feamothing jacket.' i76i. Ipswichjournal,July. 'Repairing 2 cricketing jackets 81. To a shooting jacket £i. io. Altering a Regimentaijacket 2 I.' 1798. Kent Records. 'To making a crimson cloth jackett and green cloth sarge W-coat for Postillion DID. By A23.
TROWSERS These were worn by sailors and seafaring men, and sometimes by soldiers. 'Clothed in a sailor's jacket and trowsers.' 1762. T. Smollett, Sir Lancelot Greaves. 'A regiment of cavalry who on foot wear trousers.' 1782,. The Torrington Diaries.
'They look like eggs strung in order on a wire, and tied round the head. 'At the same time also appeared the French crape toupee, also the strait smooth or English dress. All these the English had made in false hair a notion of cleanliness which they improved in being at first averse to powder; but soon after they had their own hair drest in all the different fashions. 'Some time after came up the Scoflop-shoR or Italian curls, as also the German. 'The scollop or shell were curls in three rows done back from the face in their several shapes. 'The German were a mixture of sconop-shen and French in the front curled all over behind, or'tete de mouton'. 'After that came long curls, that is, French, but considerably higher with the points rising as they went back; also the toupee with two curls down over wool, were worn at this time.
'It is not above 12 Or 13 years since cushions were first wore. Then they appeared like an exceedingly small woman's pin-cushion; but from this cushion the plan of the hair " ever since depended on. The hair has been wore higher since; wider, narrower, lower, heavier, lighter, more transparent, more craped, smoother etc; with 1 curl, 2 curls, 3, 4, 5 curls, and no curls at all; but all from the same foundation.' Materials usedfor Wigs
Horsehair, human hair, goat's, COW'S hair; hair from calves' tails; fox tails.
mohair, worsted. thread and silk.
Copper and iron wire in spiral curls, often known as iron or wire Wigs. 1750's to 70's. 'brought from Paris an iron wig; you literally would not know it from hair.' I 7 5 i. Letters ofhorace Walpole. 'A certain peruke-maker has distanced all his brethren by a new invention of making a wig of copper wire which will resist all weathers and last for ever.' 1750. ipstvichjournal, May.
These, usually drake's or mallard's, were used for the fore-
Sorry folks that's all I had
|90. Perruques 'naissante' or 'a 1'enfant'. Both show the frills known as 1chitterlings' down the front of the shirt. (i7Si.)|
|| © Ragnar Torfason|
2005 January 28